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David Vassallo's Blog

If at first you don't succeed; call it version 1.0

Category Archives: Security

Pyinstaller – building exe files from python under Kali

I was trying to build my own malicious file… Since I love python, it was natural for me to go down the python + pyinstaller route. Initially, I coded everything on windows, downloaded and installed PyInstaller [1] on windows, and attempted to use the usual pyinstaller -F my_script.py to build my executable. But then I started running into problems with modules….

The usual pip install module_name was a frustrating experience on windows (oh how I miss linux in times like this…) and I continuously hit the vcvarsall.bat error [2], even after installing Visual Studio express 2008, and the “Microsoft Visual C++ Compiler for Python 2.7″. I also went down the MinGW route [3], only to be frustrated by another missing DLL (“msvcr71.dll is missing”)

Then I remembered that the VEIL framework [4] on my Kali Linux box generates .exe files and is a python framework… and research confirmed it uses PyInstaller in the background to generate these EXEs. Digging into the source code… it uses wine to call the windows version of python, and runs pyinstaller under the wine environment.

So then it was a simple thing to emulate them… like so:


wine32 “C:\\Python27\\python.exe” /usr/share/pyinstaller/pyinstaller.py /tmp_my_script.py


And that was it… everything compiled and ready to roll….


[1] http://www.pyinstaller.org/

[2] http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2817869/error-unable-to-find-vcvarsall-bat

[3] http://ultrainfinitum.blogspot.com/2012/12/python-error-unable-to-find-vcvarsallbat.html

[4] https://www.veil-framework.com/

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Antivirus evasion : Ghost Writing update

I recently read an excellent article on PenTestGeek about “Ghost Writing”:


The article is extremely easy to follow, with some adjustments to running metasm under kali:

  • The site_ruby folder is located under: /usr/local/lib/site_ruby/
  • You dont need to copy the metasm files however, you can simply run gem install metasm
  • The disassembler script is located under: /usr/share/metasploit-framework/lib/metasm/samples/disassemble.rb

In the article, we see how the author uses ghost writing to change the signature of the shellcode file he generated by inserting instructions that do not change the actual execution of the program. Some other techniques I found effective are:

  • Find an xor eax, eax statement, and perform any operations you wish on EAX, such as mov eax, 22 or add eax, 22 and so on. The XOR statement means the register is going to be zeroed out, so these statements will have no effect.
  • Use of commands like add eax, 0 and sub eax, 0… not much explanation needed there…
  • Use of inc eax and dec eax, making sure the eax register is not used in intervening code (inc = increment and dec = decrement)
  • Use of jmp and labels to move the position of code within the file

Where I diverged from the PenTestGeek article is in the re-encoding stage. The author used the peencode.rb script (from the same sample directory the disassemble.rb script is found). This means the ghost written shellcode is compiled as a standalone executable. That’s fine, but we have some excellent frameworks like “The Backdoor Factory” which can inject shellcode into code caves within existing EXE files… meaning a better chance of the victim running an innocent or familiar looking exe that actually does something.

So how do we generate the raw binary shellcode from our ghost written assembly file? It turns out to be quite simple… Instead of using peencode.rb, we use exeencode.rb, whose default output is raw binary. We’d end up with something like so:

ruby /usr/share/metasploit-framework/lib/metasm/samples/exeencode.rb -o raw.o ./ghost_written.asm 

And our raw shellcode is now in raw.o. This in turn allows us to use backdoor factory to inject our improved, ghost written shellcode, into an existing, familiar exe, say Putty….

backdoor.py -f /tmp/putty.exe -s user_supplied_shellcode -U /tmp/raw.o

Assuming you have putty.exe and raw.o in your tmp folder, backdoor factory will do it’s magic, inserting shellcode into code caves and all that goodness, and you end up with an improved, ghost written shellcode, backdoored, putty.exe


PS you really should see the presentation from SecretSquirrel on The Backdoor Factory, and his blog posts on using the factory along with mitmproxy to backdoor EXEs passing over the wire – he is awesome…


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